Copyright © 1999 Architecture Research Institute, Inc.

The Architecture Research Institute, Inc. wishes to gratefully acknowledge the contributions of the Union for International Architects (UIA), Sim Van Der Ryn, and Stuart Cowan.

The following chart1 is presented here as an introduction to various ecological issues in the practice of Sustainable Architecture. For each issue, the chart presents a summary of current and conventional designs concepts and how an ecological approach differs.
The Sustainable Architectures Bibliography should be useful in locating books, articles, and sources that will further specific discourse about the best approaches.

1Sim Van Der Ryn and Stuart Cowan, Ecological Design, Island Press, Washington DC, 1996, pp. 26, 27)
Issue Conventional Design Ecological Design
Energy source Usually nonrenewable and destructive, relying on fossil fuels or nuclear power; the design consumes natural capital Whenever feasible, renewable: solar, wind, small-scale hydro, or biomass; the design lives off solar income
Materials use High-quality materials are used clumsily, and resulting toxic and low-quality materials are discarded in soil, air, and water Restorative materials cycles in which waste for one process becomes food for the next; designed-in reuse, recycling, flexibility, ease of repair, and durability
Pollution Copious and endemic Minimized; scale and composition of wastes conform to the ability of ecosystems to absorb them
Toxic substances Common and destructive, ranging from pesticides to paints Used extremely sparingly in very special circumstances
Ecological accounting Limited to compliance with mandatory requirements like environmental-impact reports Sophisticated and built in; covers a wide range of ecological impacts over the entire life-cycle of the project, from extraction of materials to final recycling of components
Ecology and economics Perceived as in opposition; short-run view Perceived as compatible; long-run view
Design criteria Economics, custom, and convenience Human and ecosystem health, ecological economics
Sensitivity to ecological context Standard templates are replicated all over the planet with little regard to culture or place; skyscrapers look the same from New York to Cairo Responds to bioregion: the design is integrated with local soils, vegetation, materials, culture, climate, topography; the solutions grow from place
Sensitivity to cultural context Tends to build a homogeneous global culture; destroys local commons Respects and nurtures traditional knowledge of place and local materials and technologies; fosters commons
Biological, cultural, and economic diversity Employs standardized designs with high energy and materials throughout, thereby eroding biological, cultural, and economic diversity Maintains biodiversity and the locally adapted cultures and economies that support it
Knowledge base Narrow disciplinary focus Integrates multiple design disciplines and wide range of sciences; comprehensive
Spatial scales Tends to work at one scale at a time Integrates design across multiple scales, reflecting the influence of larger scales on smaller scales and smaller on larger
Whole systems Divides systems along boundaries that do not reflect the underlying natural processes Works with whole systems; produces designs that provide the greatest possible degree of internal integrity and coherence
Role of nature Design must be imposed on nature to provide control and predictability and meet narrowly defined human needs Includes nature as a partner: whenever possible, substitutes nature's own design intelligence for a heavy reliance on materials and energy
Underlying metaphors Machine, product, part Cell, organism, ecosystem
Level of participation Reliance on jargon and experts who are unwilling to communicate with public limits community involvement in critical design decisions A commitment to clear discussion and debate; everyone is empowered to join the design process
Types of learning Nature and technology are hidden; the design does not teach us over time Nature and technology are made visible; the design draws us closer to the systems that ultimately sustain us
Response to sustainability crisis Views culture and nature as inimical, tries to slow the rate at which things are getting worse by implementing mild conservation efforts without questioning underlying assumptions Views culture and nature as potentially symbiotic; moves beyond triage to a search for practices that actively regenerate human and ecosystem health

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  1. Sustainable Architectures, City & Regional Planning Publications
  2. Sustainable & "Green" Design & Construction Publications
  3. General Climatic & Energy Conscious Design Publications
  4. Cold Climate & Passive Solar Heating Design Publications
  5. Hot Climate & Passive Cooling Design Publications
  6. Lighting & Daylighting Publications
  7. Building Types - Commercial Publications
  8. Healthy Building Design Publications
  9. Electro-Mechanical Systems Publications
  10. Water & Waste Publications
  11. Website Links

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Barnett, Dianna Lopez, William D. Browning & Rocky Mountain Institute Department of Green Development Services, A Primer on Sustainable Building, Rocky Mountain Institute, Snowmass, CO, 1995.

Callenbach, Ernest, Ecotopia, Banyan Tree Books, Berkeley, CA, 1975.

Calthorpe, Peter, The Next American Metropolis: Ecology, Community, and the American Dream, Princeton Architectural Press, New York, NY, 1993.

Crosbie, Michael J., Green Architecture: A Guide to Sustainable Design, American Institute of Architects Press, Washington, DC, 1994.

De la Court, Thjis, Beyond Brundtland: Green Development in the 1990's, New Horizons Press, New York, NY, 1990.

Slessor, Catherine and John Linden, Eco-Tech: Sustainable Architecture and High Technology , Thames & Hudson, London, 1997.

Gordon, David, ed. Green Cities: Ecologically Sound Approaches to Urban Spaces, Black Rose Books, Montreal, 1990.

Grady, Wayne, Green Home: Planning and Building the Environmentally Advanced House, Camden House Publishing, Buffalo, NY, 1993.

Hess, Karl, Community Technology, Harper & Row, New York, NY, 1979.

Hough, Michael, City Form and Natural Processes: Towards an Urban Vernacular, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, NY, 1984.

McKenzie, Dorothy, Design for the Environment, Rizzoli, New York, NY, 1991.

National Audubon Society & Croxton Collaborative, Architects, Audubon House: Building the Environmentally Responsible Energy-Efficient Office, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY, 1994 (case study)

Steele, James, Sustainable Architecture: Principles, Paradigms, and Case Studies, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1997.

Stein, Richard G., Architecture and Energy, Anchor Press/Doubleday, Garden City, NY, 1978.

Todd, Nancy Jack & John Todd, From Eco-Cities to Living Machines: Principles of Ecological Design, North Atlantic Books, Berkeley, CA, 1994.

US Department of the Interior National Park Service, Guiding Principles of Sustainable Design, US Government Printing, Pueblo, CO, 1993.

Van der Ryn, Sim & Peter Calthorpe, Sustainable Communities: A New Design Synthesis for Cities, Suburbs & Towns, Sierra Books, San Francisco, CA, 1986.

Wiley, John, Environmental Resource Guide, AIA & John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 1996.

Curtin, Deane Wilcox, Making Peace With The Earth: Indigenous Agriculture and the Green Revolution, Environmental Ethics 17, 1995, pp. 59-73.

Building a Sustainable Future: Homes for an Autonomous Community, BRECSU, Garston, UK. October 1998.

Useful guidebook outlining design principles for zero C02 emissions, zero heating and autonomous dwellings within a sustainable planning strategy including issues of site layout, transport and densities. Includes guidance on construction and product specification. (Owen Lewis, reviewer)

lan L. McHarg, Design with Nature, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1967.

Old, but not dated. (EBN review)

Sim Van Der Ryn and Stuart Cowan, Ecological Design, Island Press, Washington DC, 1996.

In Ecological Design, the authors envision how the living world and humanity can be reunited by making ecology the basis for design. The book entails the marriage of nature and technology that can be applied at levels of scale to create revolutionary forms of buildings, landscapes, cities and technologies. Some examples include: Sewage treatment plants that use constructed marshes to purify water. Agricultural systems that mimic and merge with their surrounding landscapes. Industrial "ecosystems " in which waste from one productive process becomes fuel for the next. The authors also present design principles that can help build a more efficient, less toxic, healthier, and more sustainable world. (Caroline Lobo, reviewer)

George F. Thompson & Frederick R. Steiner (Editors), Ecological Design and Planning, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1997.

This addition to the Wiley Series in Sustainable Design is a collection of essays on ecological planning and landscape architecture, with an emphasis on ecological preservation and enhancement of a site. Contributions from, among others, lan McHarg, Carol Franklin, Laurie Olin, and Mark Johnson. (EBN review)

M. Santamouris. (Editor) Energy and Climate in the Urban Built Environment, James & James (Science Publishers) Ltd., UK, 1999.

Cities have a huge impact on the local climate and require vast quantities of energy to keep them functioning. The urban environment in turn has a big impact on the performance and needs of buildings. The size, scale and mechanism of these interactions is poorly understood and strategies to mitigate them are rarely implemented.This is the first comprehensive book to address these questions. It arises out of a program of work (POLISTUDIES) carried out for the SAVE program of the European Communities. Describes the main problems encountered, and a range of design solutions that can be adopted to improve the energy performance and indoor air quality of individual buildings, and to look at aspects of urban design that can reduce these climatic effects. (from publishers description)

Bibliography for a Sustainable Professional Future, Updated & expanded edition - June 1999 Editor, Tony Rigg.

This bibliography has been compiled to provide a balanced current professional bibliography of the most relevant sources of material in this field, selected for their relevance to the practicing architect.

Originally prepared for the UIA Congress in Chicago 1993, this new edition has been prepared for the UIA Congress Beijing 1999. With the rapidly expanding interest in this field, the edition has expanded considerably, and Internet references added.

A. Sustainable City& Regional Planning, pg.2
B. Sustainable ~ "Green" Design & Construction, pg.4
C. General Climatic and Energy Conscious Design, pg.10
D. Cold Climate & Passive Solar Heating Design, pg.15
E. Hot Climate and Passive Cooling Design, pg.16
F. Lighting & Daylighting, pg.17
G. Building Types - Commercial, pg.19
H. Healthy Building Design, pg.21
J. Electro-mechanical Systems. pg.21
K. Water and Waste, pg.22
L. Renewable Energy, pg.23
P. Educational Tools, pg.24
Q. Computer Design Tools, pg.25

Herbert Girardet, The GAIA Atlas of Cities New Directions for Sustainable Urban Living, Gaia Books Ltd., UK 1992.

A good attempt at analyzing the non-sustainability of current city models, and to propose directions for more sustainable future cities. Very readable, though somewhat confused in format: while aimed at a popular readership, contains much professionally relevant conceptual material. (Tony Rigg, reviewer)

Planning for Sustainable Development: Towards Better Practice, Department of Energy, Transport and the Regions, UK 1998.

John Tillman Lyle, Regenerative Design for Sustainable Development, New York, John Wiley, 1994.

A practical guide to the theory design and construction of regenerative systems of energy, water, shelter,food production, waste disposal and other essential functions. Covers scales from region to individual building.

Kevin Lynch and Ganz Hack, Site Planning, MIT Press, Cambridge, USA, 3rd edition 1984.

Hugh Barton, Geoff Davls and Richard Guise, Sustainable Settlements: a Guide for Planners. Designers and Developers, Severnside Research and Consultancy Unit, Faculty of the Built Environment, University of the West of England, 1995.

Anton Nelessen, Visions for a New American Dream, APA Planners Press, 1994.

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David Lloyd Jones, Architecture and the Environment: Bioclimatic Building Design, Overlook Press Publication, 1998.

A distinguished international survey of the most striking contemporary architecture built to "green" environmentally sound guidelines. The author examines fifty buildings, explaining how they all respond to the need to achieve harmony with their settings, to conserve energy, and to provide for the health and well-being of their occupants.

Ken Yeang, Designing with Nature: The Ecological basis for Architectural Design, McGraw Hill Publication, 1995.

A timely, incisive book providing a comprehensive framework for designing buildings that work with nature. Offering a compelling case for ecological design, it provides architects and designers with a full understanding of the impact that the work has on the natural environment, as well as what can be done to mitigate the damage man-made structures inflict on the natural environment. It features illuminating case examples of some of the world's most ecologically comprehensive building designs. (Caroline Lobo, reviewer)

Laura C. Zeiher, The Ecology of Architecture A Complete Guide to Creating the Environmentally Conscious Building, Whitney Library of Design, Watson-Guptill Publications, New York, NY,1996.

K. David Pijawka and Kim Shetter, The Environment Comes Home, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 1995.

Thomas, Randall, Editor, Environmental Design: An Introduction for Architects and Engineers, London, Spon, 1996.

Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA, Environmental Impact of Materials, Volume A Summary, CIRIA, London, 1995.

Implications and uncertainties of eco-labelling and life-cycle assessment of building materials in general, followed by life-cycle, energy and specification guidance for mineral products; metals; plastics and elastomers; timber and timber products; paints and coatings, adhesives and sealants. (Owen Lewis, reviewer)

The American Institute of Architects, Environmental Resource Guide, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1996.

Provides a comprehensive guide to resources for environmental building and is updated three times a year. Project reports present case studies that incorporate environmental concepts and technologies Material reports details the environmental aspects and life cycles of building materials. (Owen Lewis, reviewer)

Owen Lewis & John Goulding (Editors), European Directory of Sustainable and Energy Efficient Building 1998 Components, Services, & Materials, James & James (Science Publishers) Ltd., UK, 1998.

This directory is a comprehensive European guide to manufacturers and suppliers of sustainable and energy efficient building materials and components.

Brenda and Robert Vale, Green Architecture: Design for an Energy-Conscious Future, Bulfinch Press, 1991.

Provides an overview of resource-conscious building and an exploration of the relationship between the built environment and such critical problems as power supply, waste and recycling, food production, and transportation. (Owen Lewis, reviewer)

A McNicholl and J Owen Lewis, Green Design - Sustainable Building for Ireland Office for Public Works, Dublin for European Commission, 1996.

Example of a regional, well-illustrated introductory text. (Owen Lewis, reviewer)

Kit Sadgrove, The Green Manager's Handbook, Aldershot, Gower Publishing Ltd, 1992.

Designed to help business people put sustainability principles into practice. Includes case histories, specimen policies and procedures. Covers environmental audits, energy management, developing green products, waste management, employees, public relations, finance and accounting. (Owen Lewis, reviewer)

E O Cofaigh et al, A Green Vitruvius - Principles and Practice of Sustainable Architectural Design, James & James (Science Publishers) Ltd. for EC and Architects Council of Europe, 1999.

Architects' Council of Europe publication - professional emphasis. (Owen Lewis, reviewer)

Keith Hall and Peter Warm, Greener Building: Products and Services Directory, The Green Building Press, for the Association for Environment Conscious Building, 3rd edition,1995.

Listings are for UK products and companies, but this is more than just a directory. Each product category is preceded by a summary of the issues, with suggestions for sustainable actions. (Owen Lewis, reviewer)

Going Green - The Green Construction Handbook: A Manual for Clients and Construction Professionals, Research by Ove Arup & Partners, J T Design Build Ltd, 1993.

D. Anink, C. Boonstra, & J. Mak, Handbook of Sustainable Building: An Environmental Preference Method for Selection of Materials for Use in Construction and Refurbishment, James & James (Science Publishers) Ltd., UK, 1996.

Excellent comparative information on building elements; Dutch source (Owen Lewis, reviewer)

David Pearson, The Natural House Book, Simon and Schuster/Fireside, New York,1989.

Bill Mollison, Permaculture: A Practical Guide for a Sustainable Future, Island Press, Washington, DC. 1990.

John Schaeffer and the Collaborative Design/Construction Team, A Place in the Sun: The Evolution of the Real Goods Solar Living Center, Chelsea Green Publishing Company, Vermont, USA, 1997.

Dianna Lopez Barnett and William D Browning, A Primer on Sustainable Building, Rocky Mountain Institute, Colorado, USA 1995.

This book is the documentation of the research on Sustainable Buildings by the Rocky Mountain Institute. It describes the basic principles of sustainable development, such as building configuration, building shell, energy use, water conservation, indoor air quality, maintenance, recycling and materials specification. List of sources on sustainable development, State Energy Offices, non-profit and other organizations. Periodicals and books are listed in the appendix, which also contains a Checklist for Environmentally Sustainable Design and Construction, and the UIA/AM 1993 Chicago World Congress Declaration. (Caroline Lobo, reviewer)

John L Talbott, Simply Build Green: A Technical Guide to the Ecological Houses at the Findhorn Foundation, Finhorn Foundation Development Wing, 1993.

James Steele, Sustainable Architecture: Principles. Paradigms, and Case Studies, McGraw Hill Publication, 8th Edition,1997.

US Green Building Council, DOE and EPA Sustainable Building Technical Manual, Public Technology Inc,1996.

Cosponsored by Public Technology Incorporated, the US Green Building Council, and the US Department of Energy. Addresses green building practice, covering predesign issues and site planning, through operations and maintenance. Fifteen practitioners were asked to write sections of the book pertaining to their particular area of expertise. Checklists and a list of resources are also found in this helpful manual, which is available from the US Green Building Council, San Francisco, at 415-543-3001. (www.usabc.ora). (Owen Lewis, reviewer)

Sandra Mendler, AIA (Editor), Sustainable Design Guide, Hellmuth, Obata + Kassabaum PC, Washington DC.,1998.

Klaus Daniels, The Technology of Ecological Building Basic Principles, Examples and Ideas, Birkhauser Publishers for Architecture.

"Klaus Daniel's book is not a didactic essay about back-to-nature building; rather, it is a profound and classic work that sheds light on today's new environmentally sensitive technologies" (Archtektur Aktuell review)

Brian Edwards, Towards Sustainable Architecture: European Directives and Building Design, Oxford, Butterworth Architecture, 1996.

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Baruch Givoni, Climate Consideration in Building and Urban Design, John Wiley & Sons, New York,1998.

Not a perfect book, but it serves a valuable purpose in promoting simple design approaches, rather than energy-intensive mechanical systems, for making buildings comfortable. The technical, quantitative approach lends credence to concepts that might otherwise be discounted. (from EBN review)

N. K Bansal and G Minke (Editors), Climate Zones and Rural Housing in India, Kernforschungsanalage, Juelich, Germany, 1988. (limited publication).

The extreme variation in climate across the whole of India are classified along with the criteria, based on long term weather data of many representative locations. The book illustrates traditional responses to climate in various parts of Indian subcontinent, from rural houses carefully selected as representative examples. Graphical presentation of the meteorological data is interesting for architects. Appendix includes average calculated hourly data for 32 representative locations. (M. Kumar, reviewer)

Donald Watson and Kennedy Labs, Climatic Design. Energy Efficient Principles and Practices, McGraw Hill, New York, USA. 1983.

Human comfort, and building physics condensed and diagrammed with all the formulae and units make the Principles section indispensable to all architects.

E. O'Cofaigh, l.A.Olley, & J.O.Lewis, The Climatic Dwelling, An Introduction to Climate-Responsive Residential Architecture, James & James (Science Publishers) Ltd., UK, 1996.

The Climatic Dwelling provides an introduction to climatic design for residential buildings. It examines the tradition of climatic architecture in the past, offers general strategies for climatic design. And gives a detailed evaluation of several solar building elements. Finally it gives examples of recently designed climatic dwellings. The material is also available as a resource pack ideal for teaching purposes in schools or larger practices. The ¡rich, elegant and ingenious" possibilities of climatic architecture are made accessible in this book to all architectural teachers, students and practitioners. (from publishers description)

Terry S.Boutet ,Controlling Air Movement: A Manual for Architects and Builders, McGraw Hill book Company, New York, USA. 1987.

J. R.Goulding, J.O.Lewis, T.C.Steemers (Editors), Energy in Architecture: The European Passive Solar Handbook, BT Batsford Ltd., London, UK. 1991.

J. R.Goulding, J.O.Lewis, T.C.Steemers, (Editors), Energy Conscious Design: A Primer for European Architects, BT Batsford Ltd., London, UK. 1992 .

Howard V. Walker, (Editor), Energy Conservation Design Resource Handbook, The Royal Architectural Institute of Canada, 1979.

A very well researched, edited and presented work of some 15 people, plus a large number of contributors of smaller sections. It covers all aspects of energy use in buildings - the only constraint being that it is written for Canada, may be relevant to northern Europe but not warm climates. (S. Szakolay, reviewer)

Susan Roaf & M. Hancock (Editors), Energy Efficient Building (a design guide), Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1992.

Chapters by some 20 different authors on indoor environmental standards, controls and health, building envelope materials, glazing and insulation, and on housing and non- domestic buildings. A very useful and comprehensive textbook, rather than a reference book. (S. Szakolay, reviewer)

Detailing for Designers and Building Professionals, Department of the Environment, UK Energy Efficiency in New Housing. Good Practice Guides Nos. 93 - 97, Energy Efficiency Office. London, HMSO, 1993-95.

Guide 93 - Key detailing principles;
Guide 94 - Ground floors;
Guide 95 - External cavity walls;
Guide 96 - Windows and external doors;
Guide 97 - Pitched roofs.
A useful series of 29 page publications, well-illustrated, highlighting areas of risk, with advice on specification, buildability, and site supervision. (Owen Lewis, reviewer)

Dean Hawkes, The Environmental Tradition, Spon, 1996.

Very good treatment of theory, with case studies (Owen Lewis, reviewer)

European Directory of Sustainable and Energy Efficient Building, James & James Ltd. 1999.

A collection of articles on topics ranging from material choices to solar applications to low- energy cooling, followed by a directory of over 3,000 companies active in these fields. The directory is also available on-line. (from EBN review)

G. Z. Brown, lohn S. Reynolds, & M. Susan Ubbelohde, Inside Out: Design Procedures for Passive Environmental Technologies, John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA, 1982.

Introduces passive solar concepts & addresses architectural design implications. Attempts to bridge the gap between analysis and design synthesis. Based on US conditions.

Living in the City: Architectural Ideas Competition for the Remodelling of Apartment Buildings, Energy Research Group, University College Dublin, for the European Commission, Kinsale, Gandon Irish Art Books, 1996.

Competition documentation (including refurbishment design guidelines), competition entries and jury reports. (Owen Lewis)

Francis Allard, Natural Ventilation in Buildings: A Design Handbook, Coordinated by Mat Santamouris, University of Athens, James & James (Science Publishers) Ltd., UK, May 1998.

Describes natural ventilation, its appropriate use, design and dimensioning methodologies. (Owen Lewis, reviewer)

S.R. Hastings (Editor), Passive Solar Commercial & Institutional Buildings: A Sourcebook of Examples and Design Insights International Energy Agency, John Wiley & Sons, New York.1994.

Ken Yeang, The Skyscraper Bioclimatically Considered, Academy, Editions, 1997.

This book describes the bioclimatic approach to designing tall buildings: using passive, low- energy techniques to produce buildings which are environmentally interactive, efficient, and increase occupant comfort. (from EBN review )

ECD Architects & Energy Consultants and Theo C. Steemers, Solar Architecture In Europe, Prism Press (English); Edisud (French) 1992.

Paul Kenny and J. Owen Lewis, (Editors), Tools and Techniques for the Design and Evaluation of Energy Efficient Buildings, Dublin, UCD - OPET for the European Commission, 1996.

Battle McCarthy Engineers, Wind Towers, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., UK, March 1999.

Step-by-step guide to the design development of wind towers for low energy architecture. includes case studies demonstrating successful execution of the idea and technical information on their construction. 

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Ralph M. Lebens, (Editor) Passive Solar Architecture in Europe: The Results of the First European Passive Solar Competition, 1980 Architectural Press, 1981 EUR.

Ralph M. Lebens, (Editor) Passive Solar Architecture in Europe 2: The Results of the Second European Passive Solar Competition, 1982 Architectural Press, 1983 EUR.

J. Douglas Balcomb, R.W. Jones, R.D. McFarland, W.O.Wray, Passive Solar l-leating Analysis: A Design Manual, ASHRAE / Los Alamos National Laboratory, Atlanta, Georgia, GA ,1984.

Large volume dealing with North American conditions. Developed from the US. D.O.E. basic research in passive solar carried out in Los Alamos Covers fundamentals, guidelines, methods (e.g. LCR and SLR) examples and systems. Data for North American Locations (O. Lewis, reviewer)

Sanjay Prakash, Solar Architecture and Earth Construction in the Northwest, Himalaya Vihar Anand Publications, New Delhi, India, 1991.

Anne-Grete Hestnes, Robert Hastings, & Bjarne Saxhof, Solar Energy Houses Strategies, Technologies, Examples, James & James (Science Publishers) Ltd., UK. 1996

M.S. Sodha, N.K. Bansal, P.K. Bansal, A. Kumar, and M.A.S.Malik, Solar Passive Building, Science and Design.

An attempt to introduce the fundamentals of solar passive control to a variety of readers in the building design field from college students to building design professionals. Each chapter is dedicated to a particular concept and can be read independently of others. Case studies of interesting passive buildings are presented along with some monitored results. The book can serve as a text book for students at graduate level in building science. (M. Kumar, reviewer) 

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Centre for Renewable Energy Sources, Athens, Natural and Low Energy Cooling in Buildings, CRES for the European Commission, 1994, School of Architecture, UCD, Richview, Clonskeagh, Dublin 14.

Hassan Fathy, Ahmed Sultan Abdel-Rahman, Walter Shearer (Editors) Natural Energy and Vernacular Architecture: Principles and Examples with Reference to Hot Arid Climates, University of Chicago Press for the UN University, Chicago/London, 1988.

Covers tools and concepts. Demonstrates the use of traditional materials for building in hot, dry climates. Includes a useful glossary.

Jeffrey Cook (Editor) Passive Cooling Solar Heat Technologies: Fundamentals and Applications, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Intended as a technical assessment and a compendia of important results, Passive Cooling is aimed primarily at the researcher to identify generic principles and their quantification. Chapters on Ventilative Cooling by Chandra, Evaporative Cooling by Yelloff, Radiative Cooling by Martin and Earth Cooling by Kenneth Labs emphasize the fundamental heat sinks of earth, atmosphere and sky. Of most value to the architect are The Introduction, and The State of Passive Cooling Research by Cook, and the chapter on Systems by Clark. One of the series commissioned by the US Dept of Energy, this volume can serve as a text book or as a reference for methods of maintaining human comfort in overheated climates by means other than refrigeration.

M. Santamouris, & D. Asimakopoulos, Passive Cooling of Buildings, James & James (Science Publishers) Ltd., UK, 1996.

Describes the fundamentals of passive cooling together with the principles and formulae necessary for its successful implementation.(Owen Lewis, reviewer)

Nick V. Baker, Passive and Low Energy Building Design for Tropical Island Climates, Commonwealth Secretariat Publications, London, UK.

Introduction to the basic principles of modern passive architecture and low energy building design for practitioners in different tropical climatic zones of the British Commonwealth. It covers:
a) details of climate and building practice information for different climatic zones,
b) the design of daylighting in conjunction with shading devices, and c) development of simplifed methods of calculating cooling energy loads.
Very handy reference for building design professionals in warm humid climates. (M Kumar) 

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Fuller Moore, Greg Anderson (Illustrator), Concepts and Practice of Architectural Daylighting, Van Nostrand, Reinhold, New York, 1985.

Useful account of daylighting fundamentals for architectural design. Coverage of daylight, sunlight, models and measuring instruments, shelf reflectors, baffles, wells, etc. Content relates to North America. Compares cost of daylighting with that of electrical ced. Imperial units - not Sl. (O. Lewis, reviewer)

Nick Baker & Koen Steemers. Daylight Design of Buildings: A Handbook For Architects and Engineers, James & James (Science Publishers) Ltd., UK, January 1999.

This design manual has been developed to provides a synthetic approach to the principles which lie behind successful daylight design. Emphasis throughout on practical methods to improve design.Part 1 provides a descriptive overview placing daylighting design on a time scale and against the background of climate and building use and cultural va/ues. Part 2 follows a logical structure moving from the geographical location, the site and form of the building, through room design to the detailed design of the windows and including advanced daylighting elements. Provides tools to assist the designer in providing well daylit interiors, and shows that good daylight design is not a restriction on architectural expression but, an inspiration for good architecture. (from publishers description)

Marc Fontoynont. Daylight Performance of Buildings, James & James (Science Publishers) Ltd., UK, August 1998.

As part of Daylight Europe, the daylighting behavior of 60 buildings was observed and measured during a three year period. Buildings of many different types, sizes and ages were included - from offices to museums, libraries, churches, houses, airports and factories; from Classical buildings to modem constructions and from a small single room to an office of over 100, 000 square meters. The results of the study of each building are presented, with the unusual features and main lessons highlighted. The book includes details of monitoring procedures, and a summary of the major findings. These show the potential of daylighting techniques to improve amenity and energy performance for the benefit of the occupants and building managers. They also demonstrate how often opportunities are missed, and the frequency of problems of overheating or glare. (From publishers description)

Benjamin H. Evans, AIA, Daylighting in Architecture, Architectural Record Books, McGraw Hill Publishing Company, US, 1981.

Presents daylighting design as an architectural matter, rather than simply treating the subject technically. A useful book covering fundamentals, evaluation of design alternatives (with models), case studies, cost effective daylight design. (O. Lewis, reviewer)

N.V. Baker, A. Franchiotti, & K.A. Steemers, Daylighting in Architecture: A European Reference Book, James and James (Science Publishers) Ltd., UK, 1993.

This reference book brings together existing knowledge on systematic daylighting design, collected from experts across Europe to assist architects and engineers in gaining "an in-depth understanding of the principles of good daylighting design. Comprehensive text on the scientific and research background to the state of the art in daylighting analysis and design. Starting with an historical review of daylighting design, chapters cover human requirements, the use of sky models, materials (in terms of reflectance and transmissions of light), the components of daylighting and the interaction of daylighting with artificial lighting. Final chapters review available design tools, and give examples of good daylighting design. Further useful data are provided in the appendices.(O. Lewis, reviewer)

Ann McNicholl & Owen Lewis, (Editors), Daylighting in Buildings, UCD Dublin - OPET for the European Commission, 1994, Energy Research Group, School of Architecture, UCD, Dublin, Ireland.

Claude L. Robbins, Daylighting - Design and Analysis, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York & Wokingham, US, 1986.

Covers all aspects of daylighting in commercial, industrial, institutional and residential buildings from a wide range of geographical areas. Organized to correspond to the building design process with many case studies. (O. Lewis, reviewer)

Energy Efficient Lighting in Schools, 1992.
Energy Efficient Lighting in Industrial Buildings, l 992.
Energy Efficient Lighting in Buildings, 1993.
Energy Efficient Lighting in Offices, 1993.
Energy Efficient Lighting Practice, 1994.
BRECSU-OPET, Garston, for the Commission of the European Communities.

A series of free booklets containing concise design guidelines with case studies. (Owen Lewis, reviewer)

Marc Schiller (Editor), Simulating Daylight with Architectural Models, DNNA (Daylighting Network of North America), Marc Schiller, School of Architecture, UCLA, CA , USA, 1988.

Fundamentals and principles of scale model techniques for daylighting studies, covering aspects of construction and testing of scale models and evaluation of data obtained. (O. Lewis, reviewer)

P. J. Littlefair, Site Layout Planning for Sunlight and Solar Gain, (Information Paper IP 4/92) Building Research Establishment, Garston, 1992.

William M.C.Lam, Sunlighting as Formgiver for Architecture, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, US, 1986.

Comprehensive textbook; large number of case studies for different building types. Introduces theoretical & practical aspects of sunlighting as they apply to building design. Examines ways of reducing energy use & cost. (O. Lewis, reviewer) 

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R Baldwin, A Yates, N Howard, & S Rao, BREEAM 98 for Offices: Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Methodology, Building Research Establishment, UK. 1998.

C. Den Ouden, and T Steemers, (Editors), Building 2000 Volume 1: Schools, Laboratories, University, Sport & Educational Centres Volume 2: Office Buildings, Public Buildings, Hotels & Holiday Complexes, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992.

Burt Hill Kosar Rittelmann Associates, & Min Kantrowitz Associates, Commercial Building Design Integrating Climate, Comfort, and Cost, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, USA, 1987.

Steven Temoey, Larry Bickle, Claude Robbins, Robert Busch, & Kitt McCord,The Design of Energy-Responsive Commercial Buildings, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1985.

Design Guides for Energy Efficient Non-Domestic Buildings, Cambridge Architectural Research Ltd., UK, 1994-95.

A set of four to eight-page design guides and case studies for schools, colleges, offices, and hospitals. (Owen Lewis)

N. V. Baker, Energy and Environment in Non-Domestic Buildings: a Technical Design Guide, Cambridge Architectural Research Ltd, UK, for the RIBA, 1995.

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Carol Venolia, Healing Environments: Your Guide to Indoor Well-Being, Celestial Arts News, Berkeley, USA. 1993.

Focuses on the physiological and psychological aspects of buildings. Originally published in 1998. Reprinted in 1993 with a revised section on indoor air quality and updated resource listings. (from EBN review)

David Rousseau, James Wasley, Healthy By Design: Building & Remodeling Solutions for Creating Healthy Homes, Hartley & Marks, USA, 1997.

Outstanding book, featuring a discussion of indoor pollutants and their sources, case studies of healthy and energy-efficient homes, and construction details conducive to healthier homes. (from EBN review) 

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S. P Halliday, Environmental Code of Practice for Buildings and Their Services, Building Services Research and Information Association, Bracknell, UK 1994.

Step-by-step checklist for sustainable practice, following the sequence for a new building from inception to hand-over. It then continues with use, refurbishment, decommissioning, demolition and disposal. Aimed at clients, design teams and building managers. (Owen Lewis, reviewer)

David W. Bearg, Indoor Air Quality and HVAC Systems, Lewis Publishers/CRC Press, Inc. 1993.

Comprehensive discussion of the relationship between HVAC equipment and indoor air quality in large buildings. (from EBNreview)

Friedrich Sick & Thomas Erge, Photovoltaics in Buildings: A Design Handbook for Architects and Engineers, James & James (Science Publishers) Ltd., UK, 1996.

Photovoltaics provides the feasible means to go beyond energy saving in building to incorporating Energy production. The book aims to enable architects and engineers without specialist knowledge to integrate photovoltaic systems into their designs.

Steven J. Strong, The Solar Electric House Energy for the Environmentally Responsive, Energy-Independent Home, Chelsea Green Publishing Company, Vermont, USA. 1993.

Excellent introduction to photovoltaic-powered houses, including design, wiring, and energy management by one of the industry's pioneers. Covers both stand-alone and grid-connected PV houses. (from EBN review) 

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ISWA (International Solid Waste Association) General Secretariat (Editor), International Directory of Solid Waste Management 1998/9: The ISWA Yearbook, James & James (Science Publishers) Ltd., UK, 1998. Annual reference work on the solid waste industry, James & James (Science Publishers) Ltd., UK, May 1998.

Biomass currently accounts for about 15% of the global primary energy consumption and is particularly important as an energy resource in developing countries. The book starts with an outline of the importance and position of primary production of biomass, and then of biofuel feedstocks. It then goes on to cover all the main potential energy crops. The text moves on to look at the regional distribution of energy crops, logistics systems, impact on the environment and climate and some social and economic analysis before ending with perspectives and conclusions. (from publishers description)

EUREC (The European Union Renewable Energy Centres Agency), The Future for Renewable Energy Prospects and Directions, James & James (Science Publishers) Ltd., UK, 1996.

Donald Watson, Environmental Design Charrette Workbook, American Institute of Architects, Washington, DC, 1996.

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